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Torben Rokkedal Lausch is thehead coach of the triathlon centre in Aarhus, one of three high-performance centres in Denmark. He is also close to finalising his PhD in Sports Science, and he is the individual coach of age-groupers, short-course athletes, and long-course athletes like Kristian Høgenhaug and Mathias Lyngsø Petersen.
In this episode you'll learn about:
- Torben's coaching methodology
- How to adapt training to the athlete based on where they are in their career
- Involving the athlete in the planning process
- How he manages his training squad to reap the benefits while still allowing athletes to train to their individual needs
- An example training week from Kristian Høgenhaug leading into Ironman Hamburg (the Ironman European Championships where he finished 3rd)
- Advice for age-group athletes, and time-crunched athletes in particular
- Setting training zones and targets correctly
- Nitrate as an ergogenic aid for endurance performance - the current state of the evidence
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- My name is Torben, and I'm 37 years old, residing just outside Aarhus, Denmark's second-largest city, with my wife and three daughters. I work as a full-time triathlon coach, splitting my time between one of Denmark's major triathlon clubs and as a personal coach for both age groups and elite athletes.
- At the triathlon club, my primary role involves leading our regional elite centre in Denmark.
- Three of these elite centres are in Denmark, which Triathlon Denmark, the Danish National Federation, supports. I'm responsible for planning and coaching most of the training sessions at our centre.
- My educational background is quite academic, with a bachelor's and master's degree in sports science from Aarhus University.
- I'm working on my PhD in sports science at the same university. Although I've completed all the courses and published several articles, I have yet to submit my PhD thesis.
- My PhD research primarily focused on the role of nitrate in the form of beetroot juice on endurance performance. I also conducted a study on the effect of two different models of high-intensity training on endurance performance.
- My athletic background includes playing soccer and running extensively when I was younger.
- However, I was introduced to triathlon during a gap year at a Højskole in Denmark, where I had a very inspiring mentor. This experience piqued my interest in triathlon, and I started participating in the sport, though never as more than a decent age group athlete.
- Upon entering university, I began as a swim coach and gradually progressed to become the primary coach for the entire club in Aarhus.
- I focus mainly on coaching and managing the elite athlete program, while other coaches handle the primary age group training.
- My primary responsibility is creating an optimal training environment in Aarhus, Denmark. This environment caters to both short and long-distance athletes. Since we don't have many athletes, it's essential to design a flexible training system that accommodates both short and long-distance athletes.
- By doing so, we aim to foster an atmosphere where these athletes can contribute to each other's development.
- We might consider developing a more specialised training program if we had a larger group of highly competitive short-distance athletes.
Athletes Torben works with
- Kristian Høgenhaug in long course triathlons.
- Alberta Kjær Pedersen is the top female athlete in short-course triathlons.
- Simon Jørn Hansen, the recent winner of the long course duathlon world championships in Solingen.
- Oscar Gladney Rundqvist is a national short-course elite athlete striving to reach the top of the world triathlon scene and qualify for the Olympics.
Torben's coaching methodology
- My coaching philosophy is deeply rooted in the knowledge, skills, and abilities I've gained through extensive experience. It can be challenging to encapsulate this into a specific coaching methodology.
- This is where the "art of coaching" concept resonates with me. Being a good coach encompasses physiological aspects, training planning, and numerous psychological factors.
- The art of coaching acknowledges that coaching involves diverse skills and qualities.
- My coaching style is highly adaptable, depending on the athlete's experience level.
- I aim to meet each athlete where they are and adjust my approach accordingly.
- I provide more guidance for young, inexperienced athletes, while I may facilitate more collaborative discussions for elite athletes.
- I try to minimise how much I control the athletes' training. Athletes must take ownership of their development, especially at the elite level. While I'm there to support them, I avoid being an authoritarian coach.
- I strongly emphasise listening to athletes' feedback, discussing training plans, and making adjustments based on their input. Involving athletes in planning is vital for their long-term development, helping them become more self-reliant and adept at making informed decisions.
- These skills are crucial in training and competitions, where athletes often must act independently.
Involving young athletes in the coaching process
- As a coach, it's important to tailor training plans to athletes' levels and ages, whether junior, experienced elite, or age group athletes.
- For younger athletes, asking them what motivates them and what they consider essential in training is crucial.
- Collaborating with athletes on training plans is vital, ensuring that the training schedule fits into their lives, including school and other commitments.
- Training methods, in terms of high-intensity and low-intensity percentages, are generally similar across all levels.
- However, the key differences lie in the volume and intensity of training.
- Senior elite athletes can handle more volume and intensity due to their extensive training history and better recovery capabilities.
- Younger or less experienced athletes should focus more on technical development.
- The emphasis is on building solid technical foundations, prioritising these aspects more than pure physiological training.
- As athletes progress to higher levels, their technical skills are expected to be well-established, and the focus shifts more towards physiological development.
- The annual training volume for senior elite athletes varies depending on individual factors.
- Typically, full-time athletes training for long course events log around 25 to 30 hours weekly.
- The volume might be slightly lower for those focusing on short course events, around 25 hours weekly.
- However, it's essential to note that short-course athletes can also reach the 30-hour range, and this variance is often attributed to individual differences and the age of the athletes.
- We've observed that younger short-course athletes and less experienced long-course senior athletes might train 20 to 25 hours per week.
- In contrast, senior elite athletes at the highest level tend to clock in 25 to 30 hours weekly. The training hours are influenced by various factors, including an athlete's experience, event specialisation, and age.
Training intensity distribution
- I typically train athletes with a focus on balancing their training intensity. Generally, most of the training comprises low-intensity workouts, usually around 80-90% of the training.
- Within each discipline (swimming, cycling, and running), we incorporate about two high-intensity training sessions.
- However, I believe in tailoring the training approach to each athlete based on their unique needs and capabilities.
- Some athletes may do more high-intensity training, while others may do less.
- The intensity volume in each session also varies based on the athlete's requirements. For example, during a run session, I often use start times, which allow athletes to choose their breaks and the corresponding intensity.
- Some may do four-minute repeats with a two-minute break, high-intensity VO2max training.
- Others might opt for five-minute repetitions with a one-minute break, focusing more on LT2 intensity. Depending on the athlete, some may engage in 40-50 minutes of threshold work, while others do 25-30 minutes.
- I provide a weekly training schedule to the athletes, outlining the sessions and objectives. They then collaborate with their coaches to devise a specific program. I coach many of these athletes and work with them to plan the precise repetitions and intensities.
- During the sessions, we may adjust based on the athlete's performance. Still, they always enter the session with an individualised plan.
- The specifics of the training plan depend on the athlete's strengths, weaknesses, and whether they are a short-course or long-course athlete.
- For long-course athletes, we rarely incorporate intensities above LT2 unless we identify a need to enhance their VO2max capabilities for Ironman-level competition.
- Short-course athletes may include more intensities above LT2, but we limit the volume of VO2max training.
- Extensive periods of VO2max training can be challenging for recovery and may yield diminishing returns.
- Therefore, we focus on threshold training and adjust the balance as we approach competitions, prioritising more specific intensities closer to race day.
- Transitioning from one type of training, like threshold work, to another, such as VO2max training, is smoother when you've already incorporated some VO2max work into your routine.
- It can be more challenging if you haven't introduced VO2max training and suddenly need to focus on it during a race-specific period. You need to be cautious about the risk of injuries starting from a lower fitness level.
VO2max training for age groupers
- Considering the limited time availability that age group athletes usually have due to work, family, and other commitments, there could be an advantage in increasing the amount of intensity work in their training programs.
- Elite athletes often have more time to dedicate to training, which allows for a more balanced approach between intensity and volume.
- However, for amateur athletes with restricted training hours, incorporating a higher percentage of intensity work, particularly VO2max training, throughout the season can be a more efficient way to improve performance and achieve training goals.
- Our philosophy is centred around becoming stronger together, which means we believe in fostering a robust training environment.
- In this environment, everyone contributes positively, maintains a constructive attitude, shares knowledge, and supports one another. This approach is about the physical effort and the collective journey towards becoming the best athletes we can be.
- Developing each athlete to their fullest potential is our shared objective, and the training environment plays a pivotal role in achieving this.
- Being surrounded by like-minded athletes and having close role models within the group provides a constant source of motivation and inspiration. It helps athletes stay driven and inspired to push their limits.
- Within a strong training group, knowledge sharing is seamless. Athletes can learn from each other's experiences, techniques, and strategies, which can accelerate the learning process.
- Training within a group makes the arduous work more manageable. Athletes can rely on their peers for support during challenging sessions and encourage each other to give their best.
- Learning and progressing together can be a faster path to improvement. Younger or less experienced athletes can learn valuable lessons more quickly by training within such an environment.
- However, as a coach, being aware of potential risks is crucial. One of the critical challenges is to ensure that training remains tailored to the individual needs of each athlete.
- Training sessions should be designed to allow for flexibility in terms of intensities and volumes. This flexibility ensures that each athlete can meet their specific training targets.
- Implementing training sessions with start times, especially for disciplines like running, can make it easier for athletes to benefit from a group session while still catering to their requirements.
- Maintain a group schedule for training sessions that are done together each week. These can serve as a foundation for shared experiences and cohesion.
- Encourage athletes to have individual sessions apart from the group schedule. This is the time for athletes to focus on their specific needs, possibly in coordination with their coach.
- Understand that the group might include short-course athletes, long-course athletes, those at the highest international level, and those just starting their journey. Tailor sessions to accommodate this diversity.
- We typically conduct most of our swims as a group. This is primarily for logistical reasons, as securing a lane in the pool for the entire team is more feasible. This group swim session is the most common practice.
- On the running front, we generally have one collective session each week, ensuring that all athletes engage in some form of intensity training unless there are specific circumstances or limitations. Additionally, athletes might have an additional intensity session tailored to their individual needs.
- Similarly, in cycling, we follow a similar structure. We have one session where the team rides together, and athletes might also have an intense session on their own.
Adapting cycling intensity to a group ride
- For cycling, drafting can significantly save watts, making it advantageous to have less experienced cyclists draft behind others during interval training.
- For short-course athletes, technical aspects and bike handling in a group become crucial.
- Training together in a group provides motivation and support, which is especially valuable for long-course athletes focusing on hitting the correct intensities and physiological training.
- Regardless of the event type, training in a group can enhance motivation and reduce the need for solo training sessions.
- Decision-making as a coach is a crucial process that involves creating a system for making informed choices about training plans and adjustments, particularly daily and weekly.
- This system relies on the information gathered from various sources, and as a coach, it's essential to establish a structured approach to this process.
- Coaches should first define what information they collect and use to make effective decisions. This information can include direct observations during training sessions, conversations with athletes, analysis of training session data, and even physiological data like heart rate variability (HRV).
- A coach needs to be aware of their decision-making process and base it on a clear system, even though many coaches may do this intuitively.
- I've found some excellent research papers on this approach as "effective planning."
- A systematic way of collecting information and basing decisions on it can be a significant advantage.
- When making decisions, I prefer to consider both subjective and objective monitoring. Subjective monitoring involves the athletes self-reporting their feelings of training readiness, motivation, and fatigue.
- It can also involve a coach's daily interactions with athletes, paying attention to body language and communication.
- On the other hand, objective monitoring involves physiological data like heart rate variability and resting heart rate.
- It's essential to track the trends in these metrics over time to gauge an athlete's response to training and whether it aligns with the expected progress.
- A coach must synthesise all this information and use their expertise and experience to make the best decisions. While scientific knowledge forms a valuable foundation, the art of coaching comes into play when interpreting the data.
- Even with a wealth of information, there is no one-size-fits-all scientific answer for daily decisions. Coaches draw on years of experience to identify patterns, recognise individual athlete needs, and adapt training accordingly.
Common mistakes in the decision-making process
- I'd emphasise the importance of not overdoing the intensity or volume.
- For both age group and elite athletes, consistency is critical.
- To maintain that consistency, it's crucial not to push too hard during your sessions.
- This means avoiding excessive intensity and being realistic or even a bit conservative with the amount of intensity you aim for.
- For instance, consider whether you should do 30 minutes of threshold work or 20 minutes when making daily training decisions. If you doubt whether 30 minutes might be too much, opting for 20 minutes is often wiser.
- It's a "better safe than sorry" approach, and it helps ensure that you can maintain your training consistency.
- In the long run, this consistency is more important than squeezing in five or ten minutes of training or one or two additional reps.
Training week triathletes
- I looked into Kristian Høgenhaug's training leading to his third-place finish at Ironman Hamburg.
- This week, just before race week, was part of his preparation.
- To provide context, he had previously completed an LT2 (lactate threshold 2) training block.
- He combined it with specific 70.3 training because he participated in the PTO Europe event in Ibiza, which took place four weeks before Ironman Hamburg.
- During this period, most training weeks were around 30 hours and consisted of a mix of lower-intensity sessions and significant LT2 training sessions.
- After the PTO event in Ibiza, he had four weeks (three weeks of training and one taper week) until Ironman Hamburg.
- During these three weeks, the focus shifted to become very specific to Ironman, involving more extended Zone 2 sessions and reduced LT2 training.
- Morning: 5km swim with intervals.
- Afternoon: 5.5-hour cycling ride with 4 hours at LT1.
- Evening: Easy 5km run.
- Morning: Easy 4km swim.
- Afternoon: Long Zone 2 run (approximately 30km total, 1h45m below LT1).
- Evening: 2-hour easy bike ride.
- Morning: 1-hour hard open water swim with the BMC team.
- Afternoon: 1-hour heat preparation on the bike.
- Evening: 30-minute pre-hab gym work.
- Morning: 6km swim with LT2 intervals.
- Afternoon: 45-minute heat preparation run.
- Evening: 3-hour easy bike ride.
- Morning: 5km swim with progressive intervals below LT1.
- Afternoon: 5.5-hour bike ride with around 4 hours at LT1 or slightly above Ironman race pace.
- Morning: 2-hour easy bike ride with 50 minutes in the lower end of Zone 2.
- Afternoon: Off-bike Ironman-specific run (31km with 90 minutes, a bit faster than the Ironman race pace).
- Morning: 1-hour easy bike recovery.
- Afternoon: 1-hour easy swim.
This week amounted to 32.5 hours of training, a relatively heavy week going into the taper week.
- During the taper week, we reduced my training volume significantly. He only had a few shorter training sessions. He also avoided high-intensity workouts during this period.
- Additionally, he had to deal with some travel at the beginning of the week, which naturally limited the amount of training he could fit in due to the time spent travelling and adjusting to the new environment.
- He maintains a solid LT2 around 1 minute 15 seconds per 100 meters, typically in a long-course pool. For the LT1, he's clocking in at approximately 1 minute, 20 to 22 seconds per 100 meters in the long-course setting.
- Achieving these times requires a keen ability to hit the correct intensities without overexertion.
- His extensive experience in triathlon, spanning many years, and extensive training history contribute significantly to his performance in this training week.
Three pieces of advice for age groupers
- First of all, the obvious advice is to consider getting a coach. A good coach can help you make informed decisions, primarily if you invest much time in training.
- Prioritise Safety and Consistency: Think of the mantra "better safe than sorry." Prioritise consistency as your primary goal. Don't overdo it in training, particularly regarding volume and intensity.
- Overtraining can lead to burnout and injury, especially when balancing training with work, family, and other responsibilities.
- Long-Term Progression: Rather than focusing on short-term week-to-week gains think about progression over the long term, spanning months and years.
- It's common to hear that you can increase your weekly training volume by around 10%, but be cautious not to progress too rapidly. Gradual, sustainable progress is critical.
- Focus on the Basics: Establish good habits around recovery, sleep, and nutrition. These fundamental elements are crucial for achieving positive adaptations from your training. If you have a busy life with factors like children or a demanding job, adjust your training load to accommodate your limitations. Be realistic about what you can manage.
- Balance in Life: As an amateur athlete, remember that you need to enjoy the journey. Triathlon should not dominate your life to the point of sacrificing everything else. Find the right balance between training and other aspects of life. Include your loved ones in your journey and balance discipline and enjoying life's other pleasures, whether sharing a beer with friends or pursuing other fulfilling activities beyond triathlon.
Common topics Torben addresses when working with a new athlete
- One of the priorities is to ensure that training zones are correctly established.
- Many amateur athletes have a general idea of intensity zones, but it can often be somewhat arbitrary where they draw the boundaries between these zones.
- To address this, I aim to ensure that athletes understand their training zone and can maintain the right intensity when they train.
- It's not just about putting in the required hours; it's about knowing the specific goals of each training session and maintaining the correct intensity zone.
- Typically, I like to set up training zones based on a classic five-zone model, which is commonly used in many coaching approaches. This model includes:
- Zone 1 and 2: Below LT1 (Lactate Threshold 1)
- Zone 3: Between LT1 and LT2
- Zone 4 and 5: High-intensity zones above LT2
- To establish these zones, you can perform lactate testing, which involves super maximal lactate tests to determine the boundaries between LT1 and LT2.
- If lactate testing isn't feasible, you can estimate the zones through field testing. This might include critical power testing with various time durations or a standard 20-minute time trial, followed by percentage calculations based on FTP (Functional Threshold Power).
- However, these measures aren't always exact.
- Using coaching experience to fine-tune the boundaries based on an athlete's performance and responses to training is essential.
- To err on caution, consider using the lower end of your estimates to ensure that training sessions don't become excessively intense. This approach helps maintain consistency and avoid overexertion.
- One common mistake is setting heart rate zones and percentages based on a standard formula for maximal heart rate, which might not be accurate for the individual.
- Estimating your maximal heart rate correctly ensures that your heart rate zones are correct, as using a standard formula can result in incorrect training zones.
- When working with athletes, it's essential to have individualised discussions and collaboratively create a training plan. We need to consider not only their athletic goals but also the other aspects of their lives.
- Often, athletes may have aspirations that surpass what's realistic, given their other life commitments. Reminding them of the stress introduced by work, family, and other obligations is crucial.
- These external factors can significantly impact their training and performance, so addressing them is another common and essential aspect of our discussions.
Time crunched athletes
- In general, I prioritise spending more training time on the bike, which is essential for middle to longer-distance racing, as that's what most athletes are preparing for, based on my experience.
- Approximately 50 per cent of the training time would be dedicated to cycling, with around 25 per cent for running and another 20-25 per cent for swimming.
- I don't recommend too many easy sessions. Instead, it's essential to include critical workouts focusing on different intensity levels.
- I would incorporate sessions targeting LT2 (lactate threshold) or VO2max depending on the training context.
- However, I also emphasise sessions in zone two, just below LT1, which is essential.
- For athletes with limited training time, it's crucial to maximise the benefits of each session.
- High-intensity workouts can't always be done; hence, it's vital to consider the intensity of low-intensity training. We have a comprehensive, low-intensity training zone below LT1, and whether you're closer to the bottom of this zone or nearing LT1, zone two training can provide valuable adaptations.
- The key is to balance the stress of these sessions compared to riding at very low intensity.
- If you're short on time, I recommend focusing more on training closer to the boundary of the moderate intensity zone, around LT1, rather than prescribing just easy sessions.
- This approach can help athletes make the most of their training time.
Aspects that athletes need to consider
- I am very much focused on doing the basics right. My primary areas of emphasis are nutrition, sleep, and recovery.
- These elements are crucial, alongside the actual training itself. Additionally, a well-fitted bike can make a substantial difference in performance for long-distance athletes.
- Specifically, in terms of nutrition, I stress the importance of understanding why and how to fuel each training session.
- It's not just about what you eat during your sessions but also what you consume between sessions and over extended periods like a day, week, or month.
- I'd offer advice to avoid getting caught up in the hype of methods or technologies that promise marginal improvements.
- Athletes often dive into trends like infrared saunas, cryotherapy, and other fads. However, these might only provide that last one per cent of the benefit, and if you're a time-constrained athlete, it's crucial to invest your time in the core elements of your sport—swimming, cycling, and running.
- Unless you have specific issues that require additional strength or core training, these should be your top priorities.
The Rise of the Danish Triathlon
- Denmark has a culture and tradition of producing successful long-course triathletes, including some renowned athletes.
- The Danish Triathlon Federation pushed some short-distance athletes to transition to long-course triathlon at a young age, believing they could excel in longer-distance events. This early specialisation provided a unique advantage.
- The country saw many younger athletes participating in long-course triathlons, making it more common than in previous years.
- Denmark has produced extraordinary talents with solid work ethics and discipline, who started in long course triathlon at a young age.
- Denmark has a strong tradition of club-led triathlons, which helps foster talent and passion for the sport from an early age.
- The country has a history of exceptional coaching, with sound coaching philosophies that provide athletes with the opportunity and guidance to reach the highest level in a long-course triathlon.
Pieces of advice to young athletes
- Emphasise the Present Moment: Focus on the here and now. Take things one step at a time and be fully present in your training and competitions.
- Balance Short-term Goals with Long-term Vision: While it's essential to have immediate goals, remember to also have a long-term plan. Don't strive solely for peak performance in your youth; prioritise development and the process of continuous improvement.
- Value the Journey: Understand that becoming a better athlete is a journey. Concentrate on the journey itself rather than just the results. This perspective will lead to more sustainable growth.
Overview of Torben's PhD research
- In my research, I investigated the effects of nitrate supplementation on endurance performance.
- Previous studies suggested that there was a potential to enhance endurance, particularly for less well-trained athletes. Additionally, some evidence indicated that nitrate's effects might be more pronounced under conditions of reduced oxygen availability, such as at high altitudes.
- This raised the possibility that nitrate could benefit even well-trained athletes when competing at altitude.
- To explore this, we conducted a study involving a 10-kilometer time trial performance in hypoxia (simulated 2500 meters of altitude) and normoxia (sea level performance). We enlisted 12 well-trained cyclists, each having a VO2max above 60.
- Generally, when VO2max exceeds 60, it becomes less likely that a supplement will have a noticeable effect.
- However, our results showed a 1.6 per cent improvement in endurance performance, with no significant difference between the hypoxia and normoxia trials.
- Upon closer examination of the data, there appeared to be a slightly more significant effect in the hypoxia trial than in normoxia.
- Still, with only 12 athletes, this difference didn't reach statistical significance.
- Detecting small changes in performance with such a small sample size can be challenging. Therefore, the results should be interpreted with caution.
- In practical terms, if your VO2max is below 60, nitrate supplementation, such as beetroot juice, may be considered, as it appears to have minimal side effects. Individual testing to assess any benefits would be advisable.
- If you compete at altitude, especially in parts of the competition held at high elevations, there might be a more significant benefit from using beetroot juice.
- However, for athletes with a VO2max above 60, there is limited evidence to suggest that they would derive significant benefits from nitrate supplementation.
- It's important to note that recommendations should be based on the most relevant studies and individual testing.
What's your favourite book or resource related to endurance sports?
Peak Performance: Elevate Your Game, Avoid Burnout, and Thrive with the New Science of Success - book by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness.
It focuses on understanding one's values and aligning with them, highlighting the importance of performing under pressure.
What's an important habit you've benefited from athletically, professionally or personally?
Staying present in the moment. This involves not excessively worrying about the past or the future but instead focusing on appreciating the current moment and the life being lived. This perspective encourages gratitude for the present and discourages constantly seeking a better or easier future.
Who's somebody that you look up to or that has inspired you?
The inspirational figure is a high school teacher named Hannes Mortensen, who introduced the individual to the triathlon world. She was a fantastic, inspiring teacher with a strong passion. Their influence was profound, guiding the individual onto their path in triathlon and the journey they've embarked upon.
LINKS AND RESOURCES:
- Torben's Instagram
- Periodization Paradigms in the 21st Century: Evidence-Led or Tradition-Driven? - Kiely 2012
- Periodisation Theory: Confronting an Inconvenient Truth with John Kiely | EP#148
- Peak Performance: Elevate Your Game, Avoid Burnout, and Thrive with the New Science of Success - book by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness - book by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness
- Præstér under pres - guide til mental styrke i sport, kunst og erhvervsliv - book by Jakob Hansen & Kristoffer Henriksen
- Mindfulness and Acceptance in Sport: How to Help Athletes Perform and Thrive under Pressure - book by Kristoffer Henriksen, Jakob Hansen & Carsten Hvid Larse